Bitcoin / Eth / Cryptocurrency 加密貨幣

什麼是加密貨幣?

加密貨幣是諸如USD的正常貨幣的交換介質,但是設計用於通過由加密的某些原理 使得可能的過程交換數字信息的目的。密碼術用於保護交易並控制新硬幣的創建。要 創建的第一個加密貨幣是2009年的比特幣。今天有數百種其他加密貨幣,通常稱為 Altcoins。換句話說,cryptocurrency是電轉換成具有貨幣價值的代碼行。在最簡單的 形式中,加密貨幣是數字貨幣。與集中式銀行業務不同,例如美聯儲(Fed)系統,政府 通過打印法定貨幣來控制美元等貨幣的價值,但是政府對加密貨幣的控制並不完全 分散。大多數加密貨幣被設計為隨著時間的推移而減少生產,比如比特幣,這就為它 們創㐀了一個市場上限。這不同於法定貨幣,金融機構總是可以創㐀更多,因此通貨 膨脹。比特幣永遠不會有超過2100萬硬幣流通。所有加密貨幣所基於的技術系統是 由Satoshi Nakamoto創建的。

加密貨幣的歷史

雖然存在數百種不同的加密貨幣規範,但大多數是從兩種協議之一導出的;工作證明 或權益證明。所有加密貨幣由加密貨幣礦工社區維護,加密貨幣礦工是一般公眾的成 員,他們已經建立了他們的計算機或ASIC機器參與交易的驗證和處理。 第一個加密貨幣是比特幣。比特幣是由名為Satoshi Nakamoto的假名開發商於2009 年創建的。比特幣使用SHA-256,它是由美國國家安全局設計的一組加密散列函數。 比特幣是一種基於工作證明系統的加密貨幣。

加密貨幣和市值

比特幣是市場資本,數量,接受度和臭名昭著的最大的加密貨幣,但它不是最有價值 的硬幣。 NEMstake,雖然只有1,116,720美元的市值,交易在1,117美元硬幣。看著市 值,Litecoin在比特幣之後位居第二,Ripple緊隨其後。 你更可能熟悉的一個硬幣是Dogecoin。 Dogecoin平均交易量的三分之一,但具有相 對較低的市值 – 在最大的加密貨幣中排名第六。

什麼是加密貨幣哈希(Hash)?

加密貨幣挖掘能力的等級是每秒的哈希值。具有1kH / s的計算能力的鑽機以每秒 1,000個散列的㏿率進行挖掘,1MH / s是每秒一百萬個散列,並且GH / s是每秒十億 散列。每當礦工成功地解決一個塊,就創建一個新的哈希。散列算法將此大量數據轉 換為固定長度的散列。像一個代碼,如果你知道的算法,你可以解決一個哈希,並得 到原始數據,但普通眼睛只是一堆數字擠在一起,幾乎不可能得到原始數據。

SHA vs. Scrypt

雖然Bitcoin和幾個其他硬幣開採使用SHA-256,Litecoin和許多其他硬幣,使用 Scrypt。這是兩個主要的哈希函數,但是存在幾種不同的類型,並且被諸如scrypt-N 和x11的其他隱式貨幣使用。採用不同的散列函數來回答SHA-256的關注。之前,個 人能夠利用他們的GPU挖掘比特幣,這需要大量的能量。但隨著比特幣的普及,ASIC SHA-256機器,使GPU開採過時。為了讓您了解這些機器有多麼強大,運行4 GPU的採礦鑽機將獲得大約3.4 MH / s的 散列㏿率並消耗3600kW / h,而ASIC機器可以挖掘6 TH / s並消耗2200kW / h 。這 有效地殺死了GPU挖掘,並留下了許多擔心網絡安全的人。隨著更少的個人能夠從他 們的家庭計算機中獲利,網絡變得不那麼分散。 Scrypt挖掘實現了由於其引入的內存 問題的ASIC耐性的承諾。

為什麼使用加密貨幣?

加密貨幣是一種專門設計用於利用互聯網架構的貨幣形式。代替依靠標準金融機構 來保證和驗證交易,由貨幣網絡上的用戶的計算機檢查或“確認”加密貨幣交易。驗證 交易的計算機通常會收到少量貨幣作為獎勵。接收獎勵以換取驗證交易的過程被稱 為“挖掘”,並且它是產生新貨幣的主要方式。不同貨幣的採礦工作不同。 因為加密貨幣是完全數字的,它們可以以普通貨幣不能使用的方式使用;主要是使用 它們像數字等價的現金。與銀行發行的信用卡或借記卡不同,您不需要帳戶或信用卡 即可使用加密貨幣,但您可以使用它們從日益多樣化的零售商和個人那裡購買商品 和服務。例如,Overstock.com和Newegg.com接受比特幣作為付款。對於幾乎每個交 易通常都有非常小的費用,但是它通常比信用卡處理費和利息低得多,並且費用支持 網絡。

加密貨幣:尋找什麼

加密貨幣使用許多不同的算法,並以不同的方式交易。這裡是你應該考慮的主要特 點。

1. 市值和日交易量 2. 驗證方法 3. 零售商接受

市值和日交易量

加密貨幣的市值是目前流通的所有硬幣的總價值。高市值可以表示每個硬幣的高價 值或僅僅是大量的可用硬幣。也許比市值更重要的是日交易量:每天交換手的硬幣的 價值。相對於市值的高日交易量表示一個健康的經濟,有很多交易。

驗證方法

加密貨幣之間的主要區別之一是它們的驗證方法。最古老和最常見的方法稱為工作 證明。為了獲得驗證交易的權利,計算機必須花費時間和能量解決困難的數學問題。 這種方法的麻煩是它需要大量的能量來操作。股權證明系統試圖通過讓具有最大份 額的貨幣的用戶驗證交易來解決這個問題。這些系統需要較少的處理能力來操作並 聲明更快的事務㏿度,但是關於安全性意味著很少硬幣使用完全基於證明的系統。

零售商接受

加密貨幣沒有多大用處,如果你不能買它。這就是為什麼在你投資之前知道誰接受一 種貨幣是很重要的。一些加密貨幣被廣泛接受,甚至與主要零售商建立合作夥伴關 係。然而,大多數人接受度有限,有些只能兌換其他加密貨幣。一些硬幣根本不是設 計用於交換貨物的,而是為其他目的而建㐀的。

加密貨幣礦業與比特幣礦業盈利能力 2016 Dec

比特幣挖掘比較

以下列出的加密貨幣正在與比特幣挖掘進行比較,以確定加密貨幣是否比挖礦比特 幣更有利可圖。顯示的加密貨幣利潤率信息基於使用輸入的哈希率值的統計計算,並 且不考慮難度和匯率波動,陳舊/拒絕/孤立利率,池的效率和池費用。您的個人盈利 能力可能會有所不同。

http://www.coinwarz.com/cryptocurrency

价格比特币

哈希率 BitCoin 2016

矿工收入 支付给矿工的coinbase块奖励和交易费用的总值。

散列率和電力消耗

困難 317,688,400,354

市場價 1044.61 USD

要池或不池,這是問題

第一是是否獨立開採或參與採礦池。當比特幣開採時,沒有以穩定,漸進的方式收到付款。相反,當特定的里程碑受到打擊時,他們會被大批量發給那些打中了里程碑的人。如果你沒有運行一堆超級快速的挖掘計算機,可能你永遠不會是一個達到里程碑並收到付款的人。在採礦池中,許多用戶作為一個團體聯合力量進行挖掘,並且根據他們已經貢獻了多少計算能力,所有獎勵支付被分配到組中。這簡化了獎勵結構,使您的付款更可靠。你可以選擇獨奏,但對於任何人只是進入altcoin挖掘,一個游泳池是一個更好的選擇 – 尤其是如果你不開採一個房間充滿強大的電腦。本指南的其餘部分將假設您正在池中開採。每個altcoin有不同的池,雖然一些池根據上升和下降的價值在不同的貨幣之間切換。每個泳池都有利弊,但大部分情況下,你選擇哪一個都沒關係。為了找到一個流行的游泳池,訪問一個社區網站為你感興趣的錢幣。

硬幣錢包

這樣,你可以使用你的GPU,CPU或兩者來挖掘Litecoin或大多數其他山寨幣。當您開始在您的帳戶中累積硬幣時,您可以訪問礦業池的網站並輸入地址以將硬幣發送到您的個人錢包。您可以在先前下載的客戶端的“接收”選項卡中找到您的錢包地址。一旦您開始在您的錢包中保存硬幣,您應該啟用加密它通過點擊設置 – >啟用加密,並選擇一個安全的密碼。然後,請務必定期備份您的錢包,方法是點擊文件 – >備用電子錢包。如果你失去了你的硬盤驅動器,沒有你的錢包備份到某個地方安全,你會失去你的所有硬幣。不幸的是,你可能不能夠賺大量利潤挖礦山幣。新的ASIC板正在設計目標為LiteCoin和其他基於Scrypt的altcoins,他們將迫使大功率GPU採礦鑽機脫離競爭。然而,現在,挖掘是一種有趣的方式來了解一項技術,這可能是十年中最重要的發明,而不是讓你的退休基金在線。

在市场上唯一有利可图的挖掘机器

S9 Antminer Rig

每天的電力成本 $ 3.96

每週回報 $ 42.95

每天返回 $ 6.14

每月返回 $ 184.05

投資回收期 342 days

利潤率154%

S9是Bitmain最新的2016年產品。與14 TH為$ 2100這是家庭比特幣礦工市場上最好的機器之一。隨著比特幣獎勵減半在2016年年中,S9肯定是成本曲線中更有競爭力的機器之一。

https://www.cryptocompare.com/mining/bitmain/antminer-s9-miner/

最佳比特币云矿业服务

对于那些对操作实际硬件不感兴趣的人,他们可以购买比特币云采矿合同。在本节中列出的不是这些服务的认可。有大量的比特币云开采骗局。

Hashflare Review – http://profit.hashflare.eu/en/?ref_id=539A7635

Genesis Mining Review – https://www.genesis-mining.com/?afclick=586678277881cc916e8b8f4b

Minex- https://minex.io/?clickid=586678027881cc976e8b8f1f&pid=1110

Bitcoinming – https://www.bitcoinmining.com/

Review Proposal of the Investment in Google Doc

 

 

 

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Mining project proposal

https://3dwarehouse.sketchup.com/model.html?id=6f7bdb7f03959f2fbd3f74b436390d5b

Underground building
https://3dwarehouse.sketchup.com/embed.html?mid=dbcd2cf977095f794b5916ceaed6c0f6&width=580&height=326

Underground container
https://3dwarehouse.sketchup.com/embed.html?mid=1171480ea9c2f6dbec83c1b12b60680&width=580&height=326

Underground house concept
https://3dwarehouse.sketchup.com/embed.html?mid=215301610a66add8df2d7205a618f7c7&width=580&height=326

Server Room setup
https://3dwarehouse.sketchup.com/embed.html?mid=ufdeb78b7-9268-41f0-a5d4-f9a5b67645e5&width=580&height=326

使用Quagga作為連接到數據中心的路由器。注意,我們使用IPv4 / 29作為上行鏈路,並在終端服務器連接到之間的第2層交換機。第二個IPv4 / 23塊在Quagga路由器上使用,bgp在Quagga和DataCenters Layer3設備之間完成。此設置也適用於IPv6。
Rig Setup 鑽機設置

Git for GIMP

This was one of my project proposals for the Interactivos’13 open-source projects workshop in Madrid. It didn’t get selected in the end, but if you feel inspired by this or want to implement this … feel free to do so. This piece is open content licenced under CC BY 3.0 or at your option, any later version.

Project Summary

Version control software like git makes collaboration between programmers quite seamless: it can merge together their changes and lets them revert unwanted changes. Not so for artists and designers, where collaboration still can mean mailing files around with timestamps in filenames. That’s slow and error prone, not the fun of simultaneous collaboration.

Projects like SparkleShare improve on that, bringing git to designers (and designers love it). But git was originally made for source code and not images, so it’s always a manual editing effort to merge changes from two designers who did parallel changes to the same version of an artwork. Resolving all these conflicts manually is also no fun, and effectively blocks designers from experiencing git’s true power: branching, for example. You could do some experimental changes to some artwork, exploring your own path or paths, while your collaborators proceed on the main version, fixing little flaws for example. Once you agree what experimental changes to include in the main version, git should do so for you. For source code, git can do so automatically. For GIMP images (or maybe MyPaint, Inkscape or Scribus files instead), this project will extend git with that ability.

An additional aspect of this project is that it complements the “Fork Me on Art Hub” project proposal, which is a git based art sharing platform with novel features that encourage collaboration between artists and those still considered “consumers of art”. However, this project can also function without that special platform, as it can work with every git repository (like from GitHubGitoriousBitbucket, or self-hosted).

Finally, here’s the main technical innovation of this “Git for GIMP” project: “change instructions” for raster images. For now, when SparkleShare stores a new image version into a git repository, it does so as a binary file. Git can compare it to the earlier version and store only the binary diff to save space (see “git gc”), but it does not understand about its inner structure, so it does not know how to merge parallel changes. After this project, git will instead store an image version as aggregated “change instructions” for a base image. Informal examples of change instructions would be:

  • move layer “person 1” by 14 px to right and by 30 px to top
  • change transparency of layer “flare” to 30%
  • change image data of layer “shadow” by combining it with the attached overlay layer (which has RGBA enabled)

The last type allows git even to merge changes to the actual image data of the same layer. Namely, if they don’t conflict (don’t affect the same pixels). Note that working with image files is no different with this extended git: when checking out a specific version, git will apply the relevant change instructions to the base version and provide the requested version in your file system.

Project Description

The “Project Summary” contains all the major points about this project already, so here are just some more details about the idea and possible implementation, in a quite random order, one detail per paragraph:

The current situation of images in git / svn. There are several options to add handling of binary data to git [examples]. It seems that changes only create small increments in repo size (at least when using “git gc” garbage collection). This would be the same as in SVN then, as discussed with a Pixelnovel Timeline developer. However in all these cases, git and svn do not yet understand about the inner structure of the image files, so they cannot automatically merge non-conflicting changes.

The user’s experience. From a user’s perspective, the software should act mostly like SparkleShare (and will probably indeed be based on it!). So, a designer’s work is synced to a central git repository and from there to teammates automatically whenever a change is saved. However, to enable advanced versioning like git branching, there will be a little git plugin for the chosen graphics application, probably GIMP, to enter the git commit message, choose or create a branch, revert to a prior version (ideally with thumbnail preview) and so on.

GIMP or Inkscape? The proposal is here so far to build a tool for putting OpenRaster images (from GIMP or MyPaint) into git repositories. This requires a completely new tool to extract the “change instructions” mentioned above, and to build new OpenRaster images by applying them. If that’s too complex for a two-week workshop, a similar approach can be done for Inkscape’s SVG files. With the advantage that they are XML text already, so it will require little effort to teach git how to merge parallel changes. The main effort would then be to develop a user-friendly git plugin for Inkscape that designers will love to use. (It should show incoming “pull requests” notifications when others have done changes to an open file, and the designer would accept them with a single click.)

OpenRaster, not XCF. In case that a pixel based graphics application is chosen for this project (like GIMP, which is the current proposal), it is advisable to use the OpenRaster format for storing the images. So, not GIMP’s native XCF format, which is not recommeded as a data interchange format and mostly represents GIMP’s internal data structures [source]. OpenRaster is included in GIMP since version 2.7.1 or 2.8 [source]. The additional advantage of OpenRaster is that it benefits multiple applications (like MyPaint) and allows collaboration between them. A disadvantage is that it is still quite a new, not much adopted file format – but nonetheless the proposed open standard format for raster images. Apart from OpenRaster and XCF, TIFF would be the only other format that could be used. However the modes of saving layer metadata etc. are normally proprietary, as TIFF is basically just a container format.

Deriving instructions from GIMP history? In GIMP’s case, these “change instructions” might be derived from the GIMP’s history feature. But maybe a better alternative is to derive them by comparing two versions of a saved file directly – as done in the world of source code by “diff”.

Inspirations from Pixelnovel Timeline and ComparePSD. The closest existing product for version control in images is Pixelnovel Timeline, and it offers a lot if insights for a great workflow and user interface when developing version control software for designers – see http://pixelnovel.com/timeline . It is based on the SVN version control system, however it can only do linear versioning and rollback and needs manual merging for changes derived in parallel from the same version. Also interesting for UI design in this project is the Pixelnovel ComparePSD tool for comparing PSD files layer by layer.

Inspirations from Kaleidoscope App. There is an app for visually comparing differeing versions of an image, to spot differences optically: Kaleidoscope.

Fork a piece of art work

Project Summary

For many professions, there’s a home for collaboration on the Net: programmers have SourceForge and Github (and many more). Electronics engineers have Open Design Engine (opendesignengine.net) and Upverter (upverter.com). Writers have tools like EtherPad Lite and Google Docs. But artists and designers? Not one I’m aware of.

Sure, there’s deviantart.com and flickr.com. Huge platforms, but not collaborative at all: the only thing to do there is present your work and comment on others. “Fork Me on Art Hub” project wants to fill exactly that gap. It wants to place artists and designers into an open content “rhizome of graphical knowledge”, where it feels like everybody collaborating with everybody else, and doing so without needing any special invitation.

Here’s how: A web-based platform for social collaboration in artwork and design, grown around version management for artwork files with git, the promotion of open content licenses (like CC-BY-SA), and “uninvited contributions” by fellow designers and those previously known as “art consumers”. This kind of “uninvited contributions” is well-known in the software world, for example called “forking” and “pull requests” on Github.

(Note: For the version management part, this project is complemented by the “Git for GIMP” project proposal. That project makes the workflow much more likable for designers, but initially the platform can also work without this and collaborate with SparkleShare for example.)

Project Description

The portal’s functionality is best explained by assuming a “social network” type portal, plus the following features (listed by importance, and explained in detail in the “Project Description”):

  1. Free git project hosting. Artists and designers can register for free and host art project for free as long as they assign an open content license to it. All art projects are automatically versioned with git, and the different versions are also accessible via a web interface (gitorious is a nice base software for that). And not just the artwork will be in the git repo, also utility files and everything else needed to collaborate on an artwork, like scripts for generative art.
  2. “Fork Me” function to create derivatives. Like on Github, there will be a prominent “Fork” feature. Once you click this, it allows to initialize a new own git repo with the artwork in question, and to add own versions by building on original ones. Once you have something you want to contribute back to the original author, you can create a “pull request” for that version.
  3. One-click accepting of contributions. Ideally, it will be possible to include others’ updates back into your own work by just clicking “accept” for an appropriate pull-request notification that pops up on the website. It would be possible to get pre-views of the changes before accepting a change, of course.
  4. Embeddable widget with “Fork Me” function. This is one of the most innovative aspects here. For embedding an artwork into a website, whether the artists own one or any other, the Art Hub platform provides auto-generated “embed code”. That HTML snippet not only shows the artwork, but also a “Fork Me” button that takes the reader to the Art Hub platform and shows some easy steps to create a derivative artwork. And then, all derivatives are shown in a slideshow that is also accessible from within the embedded HTML. Which means that creating derivative works results in immediate publicity in all publications showcasing the original work – and the “consumer” is no longer consumer at all, but co-producer. Esp. for art-related publications it will be a lot of fun for the artistists and art-enthusiast readers to see the derivative works produced by their fellow readers.
  5. Social commit messages. To make the Art Hub system more enjoyable in spute of quite technical version management, the git commit messages for each new version should be split into a technical and social part. Giving thanks, making a funny comment etc. goes into the social part, and update notifications and pull requests on the web platform would should show these social parts of the commit message as well, alongside with the picture of the author, similar to the update notification feed found in social networks like Facebook.
  6. Derivative graph. With artwork, it’s not like with software: given a set of derivatives, people will hardly ever agree on a best version, while in software all improvements are regularly merged into the main version. So with artwork, there will be many forks that do not get merged back into the original, and these should be shown as a tree-like graph of derivative works (incl. preview images) on a project’s page.
    This would even be the main feature of this invention: allowing not just one version of a graphic to exist, but a lot of interdependent versions. (They can be all incorporated within one git repo, as branches that branch into even more branches.) Those who search for a work to incorporate can then look through all the variants. And it would be the work of the main graphic project’s authors to provide a systematic collection of the derivatives that are the most relevant, in her view.
  7. “Getting derivatives” as reputation. Collaboration is also about culture: on Github, you can estimate the popularity of a project by looking at the number of followers and forks. And similarly, people creating derivative works should be considered a good thing on the Art Hub platform and their number would be shown prominently, to encourage the culture of sharing.
  8. Embedding option with automatic attribution. When generating the HTML snippet with the embed code, the platform also automatically includes proper attribution for all base works, in accordance with the artworks’ licenses. This automatic attribution removes a major practical hazzle when dealing with open content photography and images: keeping track of sources and attributing correctly.
  9. art hub integration into FLOSS graphics apps. There would be plugins for major FLOSS apps (GIMPInkscape,MyPaint) to open and fork Art Hub art repositories directly from the Internet. (Note that these app plugins would manage a local git repo invisibly, no need to care about that.) When saving back to the repo (or a new forked repo) with the graphics application, a “new fork / derivative / pull request” notice will appear on the Art Hub platform. Tihs feature is for workflow improvement only, and not needed for a first working verison.
  10. Federation. Some artists may want to fork the platform itself and create their own self-hosted artist community. As the platform software will be free and open source, this is clearly possible. However there should be an actively promoted “federation” feature that allows a global search on all platforms that have it enabled, plus cross-platform forking of artwork projects.
  11. CC licence registry. The platform can also take over the role of a “copyright licence registry”, here for open content licenses, as another way to promote collaboration among the arts. It’s a platform to record the fact of people licencing their work, to avoid potential later legal hazzle.
  12. Automatic pingbacks for derivatives. Of course the platform informs the authors about derivatives created on the platform, but additionally it can search the web (with image similarity search etc.) for other derivatives and likewise create notifications for these.
  13. New collaboration option for large graphics. This software would allow new types of collaboration on large infographics etc., by creating placeholders at first, putting them together into the master graphic, then letting everybody work on fleshing out one placeholder each and feeding the changes automatically into the master graphic.
    Similarly, this kind of distributed, versioned graphics creation system should also work for multi-page DTP documents with lots of illustrations, like by integrating it with Scribus. So a lot of authors (including the general public) can work on creating a complex document, both the text and graphics.